Verse 1.3 reads: What advantage does man have in all his work which he does under the sun? For me, the writer's discontentment immediately brought to mind Karl Marx's concept of alienation, particularly the aspect of work being a hindrance to human potential. For the proletarian, the workplace is void of fulfillment and humanness is traded for mechanistic labor. This lack of fulfillment transcended a chasm of over 18 centuries worth of history, and I can imagine, still resonates with many humans today. Despite this very simple similarity, there are of course, discrepancies between the two texts/writers mentioned, wholly apart from when these thoughts were recorded. The most glaring discrepancy, it seems to me, is that Marx prioritized human potential while Qoheleth did not. Qoheleth writes that [a]ll is vanity (1.2) and that [a]ll things are wearisome (1.8). This means that human potential is both vain and wearisome, not something that should be celebrated. Also, it can't be assumed that Qoheleth or those he wrote about maintained a similar psychological state to that of the proletarian, among other problems. As you might have noticed, I am more or less dismantling the very idea I began with and I'm rather unsure of why I am still writing/going to publish this. Better results shall be rendered for the upcoming chapters, I sincerely hope.